" this chapter considers the complex relationship between photography an reality. It begins with a brief history and technology of the medium. It shows how it works, and how it is able to represent the real world itself in fixed, two-dimensional form. We will see how the early pioneers succeeded in capturing the image in the early nineteenth century, and how the technology of photography was developed in France, Britain and the United States. We will then see the various uses to which photography is able to reproduce reality, however, leads us to a question whether it can therefore be considered an artistic medium. In support of this argument, we will discuss the objections of Roger Scruton, who claims that photography is unable to transcend its subject-matter and so cannot be considered art. In contrast, we will then consider the role of authorship in photography, the extent to which the attitude, creativ choices and technical skill of the photographer suggest that photography cannot be considered an objective reproduciton of reality at all. We will use a famous depression-era photograph by Dorothea Lange to demonstrate the role of subjectvity in photography, while the work of Aaron Siskind will be used to show the creative potential of form over content. We will conclude with André Bazin’s theory of the ontology of the photographic image and its special relationship with reality. "
- Visual culture, 2an edition: fully revised and updated. Richard Howells, Joaquim Negreiros.